The Enlightenment

The Assignment: Students need to find a book about, or connected to, an Enlightenment thinker and/or idea. 

Some examples:

Scientific Method/ Inquiry/ Empiricism
    
    Rene Descartes
        
Francis Bacon

Feminism
        Mary Wolstonecraft
        Mary Astell
        Olympe de Gouge

Government
        Ben Franklin
        Montesquieu
        Jean Jacques Rousseau
        John Locke
        Thomas Jefferson
        Thomas Paine

Justice System/ capital punishment/ torture
        Cesare Beccaria

Philosophy/ Education
        Comenius
        Denis Diderot
        Goerte
        David Hume
        Immanuel Kante

Economics
        Adam Smith

Religion
        Voltaire

Destiny Catalog  check what this Library offerst available  in the Library

EE

EBooks - online access and there are APPs for mobile devices
 

To find out more about the Enlightenment thinkers:

Great Lives from History: 17th Century 18th Century
 
 

Fine Arts & Music Collection
Provides information on hundreds of arts-related topics from...Hip Hop to Handel, the feminist film movement to machismo in movies, elementary music education to advanced music theory,
art therapy to the new urbanist movement in architecture, and more.

Websites 

American History from Revolution to Reconstruction and Beyond
Biographies of John Locke, Thomas Paine, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson,
Adam Smith.
InfoPlease
This particular entry is for John Amos Comenius. The article is not long but has links.
Also look for other individuals.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Excellent source for information about individual philosophers, like Baron de Montesquieu,
and schools of philosophy. "A peer-reviewed academic resource"

Library of Economics and Liberty
The free access to the encyclopedia gives pertinent
information about Adam Smith and David Hume.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Another excellent source with background information about The Enlightenment or Age of Reason. Also extensive information about individuals and theories. Check out John Locke, for example.

1700-1800 Age of Enlightenment  
The shift in thinking toward the middle of the 18th century brought about a period called the Age of Enlightenment. Discover what influenced the thinkers of the Enlightenment period and explore the art from that time. See examples of Rococo art and watch a video that describes the shift away from the monarchy towards the aristocracy. Explore the characteristics of Neo-Classicism and examine Neo-Classic paintings. English prints and English portraiture from the Age of Enlightenment are also introduced. Several videos are available.
Topic: Enlightenment, Art--History, Rococo art Language: English Lexile: 1220    
 
URL: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org

The Rise, Decline, and Reemergence of Classical Liberalism

 

The Lockesmith Institute, founded in 1992, is named for two of classical liberalism's most influential writers, John Locke and Adam Smith. The premiere issue of the Institute's journal, The Lockesmith Review, included the essay "The Rise, Decline, and Reemergence of Classical Liberalism"; the complete text is available at this site. The essay outlines the history of classical liberal thoughtits ideas, thinkers (e.g., Locke, Mary Wollstonecraft, Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stewart Mill), and schools of thought (e.g., the Scottish Enlightenment, the French Enlightenment, the American Democratic-Republicans, the Manchester School, American Transcendentalism, the Austrian School, the Chicago School).

Topic: Liberalism, Locke, John,--1632-1704, Smith, Adam,--1723-1790

URL: http://www.belmont.edu

 

 

Museum Mausoleum Copenius
Information about John Comenius. The site is in Dutch;
just indicate Translate. Check out the biographical information, too.

The Enlightenment  
Although the intellectual movement called 'The Enlightenment' is usually associated with the 18th century, its roots in fact go back much further. The author defines the term enlightenment, before explaining the pre-eighteenth century roots of The Enlightenment. This college level reading presents information topically beginning with Background in Antiquity, The Renaissance Humanists, The Political and Economic Background, and many others, concluding with The Heritage of the Enlightenment. Links are provided to other web pages about The Enlightenment.
Topic: Enlightenment Language: English Lexile: 1360    
 
URL: http://www.wsu.edu
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

 

Although he never left the town where he was born, Immanuel Kant spoke to the world about logic and metaphysics through his work. This philosopher started a revolution of the mind concerning how people saw reason, judgment, and knowledge. Through reason, Kant believed people made sense of their experiences as they divided them into categories. Concerning morality, Kant felt it was never right to lie, and that moral duty was more important than happiness. He also believed that beauty was objective.

Topic: Kant, Immanuel,--1724-1804

URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk

 

 

Immanuel Kant, 1724- 1804

 

Although he was raised in poverty and the strictness of Pietism, Immanuel Kant became a philosopher. His "Critique of Pure Reason" is a philosophical classic. He believed that "though our knowledge begins with experience, it does not follow that it arises out of experience." He also believed in the existence of God, freedom, immortality, and a universal moral law. Kant lived an ordered life and stayed close to home, but was known for being witty in his lectures.

Topic: Kant, Immanuel,--1724-1804

URL: http://www.historyguide.org

 

 

Francis Bacon

 

A large report about the life and works of Francis Bacon (1561-1626), one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology. Sections of interest include; biography, natural philosophy, scientific method, science, and social philosophy, ethical dimensions in Bacon's thought, and Novum Organum and the Theory of Induction. Francis Bacon was a lawyer, a Member of Parliament, and served on the Queen's Counsel. Bacon wrote many essays that pondered questions of ethics.

Topic: Bacon, Francis,--1561-1626

URL: http://plato.stanford.edu

Francis Bacon

 

Here is an introduction to the life and work of Sir Francis Bacon, British statesman, philosopher, early champion of scientific investigation and one of the torch bearers of Renaissance humanism. His career is outlined, his major works are introduced, and their significance is explained. There is also a timeline listing the important events in his life. Those interested in becoming acquainted with his work will find links to full text versions of Bacon's Essays and The New Atlantis.

Topic: Bacon, Francis,--1561-1626

URL: http://www.orst.edu

Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)

 

The famous English philosopher, Frances Bacon, was born in London in 1561. In 1620, he wrote and published "Novum Organum". The book was about the proper way to attain knowledge. On this page, you will find a short biography on the life and career of Sir Francis Bacon, the man who is sometimes referred to as the "pioneer of modern scientific thought". This article and photograph of Francis Bacon is presented in the historical figures section from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Web site.

Topic: Bacon, Francis,--1561-1626

URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk

 

 

   

Voltaire: On Francis Bacon

 

This letter was written by the great philosopher Voltaire, following a discussion with his associates about who was the greatest man. It not only discusses the contributions of Sir Francis Bacon to experimental philosophy and why they were of such great significance but also provides a historical context for them. With great esteem for Bacon, whom he calls "our illustrious Thuanus," he compares his discoveries to those of people who came before him and adds anecdotal information about Bacon's life and work. You will find this document worth browsing although there may be references to some things which are not familiar. Search by keyword for related information on the Internet Modern History Sourcebook main page.

Topic: Bacon, Francis,--1561-1626

URL: http://www.fordham.edu

 

Women Philosophers.com - Olympe de Gouges 1745 - 1793
"She was a popular playwright and she strongly advocated the rights of French women."
Much more.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)  
German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe earned early fame with the publication of The Sorrows of Young Werther in 1774, but Faust, a poetic drama in two parts, is his most famous work. Considered one of the greatest figures in Western literature, Goethe also pursued interests in alchemy, biology, and physics (he developed a non-Newtonian and unorthodox theory of the character of light and color that influenced such abstract painters). Suggestions for additional reading and a list of works complement this literary biography.
Topic: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von,--1749-1832 Language: English Lexile: 1170    
 
URL: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe         


The son of a lawyer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was tutored in languages and memorized literary passages by Homer and Ovid. While studying law, he wrote poetry and a satirical crime comedy. While practicing progressive law, he wrote a novel and collaborated on plays. Learn about his epic poem Faust, which was adapted for opera. In addition to being a poet and lawyer, Goethe was a scientist and philosopher. His writings inspired Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Topic: Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von,--1749-1832   Language: English    Lexile: 1370  Biography      

URL:  http://www.poets.org

John Locke

 

Known as the "father of empiricism", John Locke advocated his belief that all knowledge is attained through the use of the senses, through his writings. This site documents Locke's childhood, raised the son of an attorney, through his education in which he became a physician and philosopher. The site also discusses his thoughts, opinions, and ideas about man, existence, society, and government. The often radical thinking characteristic of John Locke, which is evident in the few works published by him, are also discussed.

Topic: Empiricism, Locke, John,--1632-1704

URL: http://www.victorianweb.org

 
 

John Locke

 

One of the greatest philosophers in Europe at the end of the seventeenth century was John Locke. Understand the history behind the time in which Locke lived and see why it was considered one of the most extraordinary centuries of English political and intellectual history. Read about his monumental work called An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and see when and why he wrote the Two Treaties of Government. A bibliography of Locke's works is included.

Topic: Locke, John,--1632-1704, Philosophers, Modern

URL: http://plato.stanford.edu

 

 

 

 

René Descartes

 

The Galileo Project Web site features a collection of biographical fact sheets describing the achievements and contributions of scientists who built upon the work of the great scientist and astronomer Galileo Galilei. The information on French scientific philosopher René Descartes includes his birth, family history, religion, and education, as well as his scientific pursuits, important discoveries, fellow researchers, and patrons. There is also a site link to a page of "Portraits" that features a picture of Descartes and other scientists of his era.

Topic: Descartes, Rene,--1596-1650

URL: http://galileo.rice.edu

 
 

Descartes' Life and Works

 

Here is an informative look at the life and accomplishments of philosopher Descartes. You will learn about his early life, starting in his childhood and taking you through his army career and his interest in mathematics. You will then get a look into Descartes famous writings, The World and Discourse, The Meditations, The Principles and The Passions, that are described on this page. This is a great resource for detailed information about this historical figure's contributions to mathematics and science.

Topic: Descartes, Rene,--1596-1650, Philosophers, Modern

URL: http://plato.stanford.edu

 

 

 
Library of Economics and Liberty
The free access to the encyclopedia gives pertinent information aboutAdam
Smith. Also includes David Hume.

Thomas Paine

 

Common Sense, The Crisis, The Rights of Man, and Age of Reason are all writings by the late Thomas Paine that are available for you to read when you visit this site. Paine's beginnings started back in Thetford, England where he was born on January 29, 1737. He started out working for his father as a corsetiere after he failed out of school. Paine's misfortunes in the jobs he held led him to his journey to America. When you visit this site you will find a brief biography on Thomas Paine and discover the important role he played in America.

Topic: Paine, Thomas,--1737-1809

URL: http://www.ushistory.org

 

 

 

Tom Paine

 

In this biography of Thomas Paine you will learn about the man that had a great impact on the writing of the Declaration of Independence. He wrote the famous pamphlet Common Sense that debated the idea of England breaking away from the rule of the king. Paine wrote the pamphlet soon after he was offered a job by Benjamin Franklin as the editor of Pennsylvania Magazine. It sold over 150,000 copies. His writing caused colonists to seek the need for independence from England. You will also learn about the diversified jobs and careers Thomas Paine held.

Topic: Paine, Thomas,--1737-1809

URL: http://www.pbs.org