Title I [Part A] is a federally funded program that was created (along with the "Head Start" Program) as part of the Elementary and Secondary School Act of 1965, in what President Lyndon B. Johnson coined a "War on Poverty". The Title I program attempts to level the academic playing field by providing monies to communities where a significant number of people living at or below the poverty level.
"In recognition of the special educational needs of low-income families and the impact that concentrations of low-income families have on the ability of local educational agencies to support adequate educational programs, the Congress hereby declares it to be the policy of the United States to provide financial assistance... to local educational agencies serving areas with concentrations of children from low-income families to expand and improve their educational programs by various means (including preschool programs) which contribute to meeting the special educational needs of educationally deprived children" (Section 201, Elementary and Secondary School Act, 1965).
Nationwide about 12.5 Million children are currently benefiting from the Title I program. In schools where only a small percentage of students in a school system are considered to be economically challenged staff paid through the Title I program are restricted to working only with "Title I" identified children through a targeted assistance model. Schools are eligible to treated as a "Schoolwide" Title I schools if the poverty level, (determined by free and reduced lunch counts, AFDC, census or Medicaid) is at or above 40%. In a schoolwide Title I school staff paid with Title I funds are free to work with all students in the building as there are no students specifically identified as "Title I." The Oldham School is designated as a targeted assistance school.
To learn more about the Title I program please visit either: http://www.ed.gov/programs/titleiparta or History of Education - Selected Moments in the 20th Century.