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Gender Roles

"Gender socialization is the process by which people learn to behave in a certain way, as dictated by societal beliefs, values, attitudes and examples."
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Early Gender Socialization
The foundations for gender stereotypes and roles are laid in early childhood through gender socialization. Beginning at birth, children learn about the cultural roles of their gender and differing societal expectations for girls and boys. From gender-based toys to gender-based assignments or chores, gender socialization is entwined in the social, cultural, and religious upbringing of children. Through gender socialization, people learn to adopt the behaviors dictated by societal values and attitudes. This process begins before birth and continues throughout a person's lifetime as expectations, judgments, and stereotypes determine what it means to be masculine or feminine. Investigate gender discrimination.
Topic: Socialization
Language: English
Lexile: BR
URL: http://www.unicef.org

Gender Roles in the '90s: With More Equity, More Sweat
The war for gender equality between the sexes has for many Americans been replaced by the stresses and pressures of time and finances. While the workplace and domestic roles has seen progress through the negotiation of gender roles, many are struggling with a lack of time for strengthening marriages and families. Discover that concerns shared by both males and females, as well as the issues blamed on the other sex. Analyze changes in sexual harassment in the workplace, ongoing barriers to women in management, and concerns about the ways boys are being parented and educated in modern day America.
Topic: Sex role
Language: English
Lexile: 1330
URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com

The Truth About 'Pink' and 'Blue' Brains
"Venker claims that there has "been an explosion of brain research" that proves that men and women have different brains. This research, she claims, shows that men are loners who like to hunt and build things and women are nurturers who like to talk and take care of people. This is false on two fronts."

Gender Gaps on Views About Gender Equality

While majorities in all six countries support the principle of gender equality, there are significant differences between men and women on this issue. The most striking gender gap is in Jordan, where 82% of women but just 44% of men say women should have the same rights as men.

Moreover, while there is majority support for the idea of gender equality, this does not necessarily apply to specific aspects of public and private life. For instance, at least half in Tunisia, Pakistan, Turkey and Jordan say men make better political leaders. When it comes to economics, most say women should be able to work outside the home, but most also believe that when jobs are scarce, jobs for men should be the first priority. And in the personal realm, many of those surveyed believe a woman’s family should help choose her husband, rather than the woman herself – indeed, in Pakistan and Jordan this is the majority view.
from Support for Gender Equality – but Not in All Circumstances

Afghanistan: Invisible Women 
Afghanistan is still a dangerous place to be female, even after the overthrow of the Taliban. Although women are free to go to work, school, out in public, and even get involved in politics, many are afraid to take the risk. Afghanistan women seek the right equal political representation and legal protection against sexual harassment and domestic violence. They fear a new constitution will have little power to protect their rights. Afghanistan is a dangerous place to be pregnant, with lack of access to health care. Discover the challenges concerning education for girls.
Topic: Women's rights, Sex role
Language: English
Lexile: 1050
URL: http://www.pbs.org

Gender Role Stereotyping

Changing Images of Women's Role
American women played a very important role in World War II and the National Women's History Museum wants to make sure that role is never forgotten. View amazing photographs of women in action as they served their country in uniform and on the home front. Discover the impact advertising had upon the portrayal of women in the armed forces. Learn about the great service and sacrifice women made in the nurse corps, armed services and as aviators as you further explore this site.
Topic: World War, 1939-1945--Women, Women in the military
URL: http://www.nwhm.org

Gender Roles and Gender Differences
McGraw-Hill Text also looks at gender development and differences.

For Young Boys, Is Pink the New Blue?
"For generations the view has held strong that while girls must dress in pink to be girls, boys can't do anything with pink, lest they turn into girls."

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Workplace values differ around the world. In a time when international business needs to deal with cultural diversity, it is important to be aware of cultural taboos and conversation patterns. Investigate the results of a decade of research by Dr. Geert Hofstede. After collecting data from more than 40 countries, he identified and analyzed five cultural dimensions. While the people in some cultures accept their place in a hierarchy, other cultures reject hierarchies. Some cultures value individual expression and self-actualization while others value social obligations and harmony. Cultures vary concerning traditional gender roles and anxiety in unstructured situations.
Topic: Social values
Language: English
Lexile: 1190
URL: http://www.mindtools.com

What is Gender Analysis? 
The differences in the lives of men and women may lead to social and economic inequalities. Analyzing these differences can reveal the underlying causes of inequality and change policies to provide equal access to services. Understand that gender goes beyond biological differences to encompass gender roles, cultural expectations, and socially-constructed identities. Life experiences and priorities are different for women and men but gender is only one of the factors that influences their needs. Consider why equity is more important than equality.
Topic: Gender-based analysis
Language: English
Lexile: 1800
URL: http://www.gdrc.org

Gender Analysis
Government programs and policies should provide equitable outcomes for men and women. Gender analysis can help policymakers develop strategies that address gender-specific needs. This practical tool helps the government or community analyze how a particular policy will benefit and impact women and men. Women in Australia no longer have to leave their jobs in teaching or public service when they get married but they still more often live in poverty if they are single parents. Although laws protect them against sexual harassment, they are still frequently victims of domestic violence. Gender analysis can encourage women's economic independence and community participation.
Topic: Gender-based analysis
Language: English
Lexile: 1250
URL: http://www.women.qld.gov.au